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Logo The content below is information specific to this academic department's fields of interest.

Education Department Conceptual Frameworks:

Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program
Graduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program

Advanced Teacher Preparation Program
Other School Professional Preparation Program


Conceptual Framework for
Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program
Educator Preparation Unit

This document serves as the conceptual framework for the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program of the Muskingum University Educator Preparation Unit.  It serves as the foundation for the ongoing development of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program, and as the driving force and the unifying thread across the various licensure areas of the program, courses, teaching, candidate performance, scholarship, service, and accountability.  In brief, the framework provides the nucleus for distinguishing program completers of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program of Muskingum University Educator Preparation Unit from program completers of like undergraduate initial teacher preparation programs of other institutions.

At Muskingum University, initial teacher preparation occurs at the undergraduate and graduate levels, preparing candidates for their first license to teach. At Muskingum, initial teacher preparation includes licensure areas within the Departments of Art, Education, Music, and World Languages.

Furthermore, the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program includes students enrolled in the traditional undergraduate program at Muskingum University and students enrolled in the Muskingum Adult Program (MAP), a program allowing adults to earn a bachelor’s degree by taking courses offered evenings and weekends.

This conceptual framework consists of the following structural elements:

  • mission of the Institution and the vision and mission of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program;
  • philosophy, purpose, and goals of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program;
  • knowledge-bases, including theories, research, the wisdom of practice, and education policies that drive the work of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program;
  • candidate proficiencies related to expected knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions, including proficiencies associated with diversity and technology, that are aligned with the expectations in professional and state standards; and
  • a description of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program Assessment System

MISSION OF THE INSTITUTION

“The mission of Muskingum University is to offer quality academic programs in the liberal arts and sciences in the setting of a residential, coeducational, church-related university and in the context of a caring community where individual fulfillment encouraged and human dignity is respected. Its primary purpose is to develop – intellectually, spiritually, socially and physically – whole persons, by fostering critical thinking, positive action, ethical sensitivity and spiritual growth, so that they may lead vocationally productive, personally satisfying and socially responsible lives.”

VISION OF THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

The vision of the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program is to offer quality educator preparation programs in the context of a caring professional community. Furthermore, and primarily, it is the Program’s vision to develop educators who will serve a diverse and global society through leadership based on knowledge of human development, discipline-specific content, and pedagogy.

MISSION OF THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

The mission of the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program is to develop teacher-lead who encourage, equip, and empower all students.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

The philosophy of the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program is grounded in the commitment to help candidates develop intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically.

PURPOSE OF THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

The purpose of the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program is to nurture candidates into becoming educators who in turn nurture their students to their fullest potential by (1) encouraging their efforts, increasing motivation, and creating opportunities for developing self-motivation; (2) equipping them with the knowledge and skills they need in order to be successful, professionally and personally; and (3) empowering them to become active participants in their own professions, families, and communities.

GOALS OF THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

Consistent with the philosophy and purpose described above, the following serve as the goals for the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program.  These goals provide direction for developing and aligning the curriculum, instruction, field experiences, student teaching, and assessments of candidate performance and for the management and operations of the Program.  Candidates for initial teacher preparation shall:

1.   help students develop intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically (Student Growth and Development);

2.  set learning goals and plan and implement learning activities and assessments that ensure that all learners are both        successful and challenged (Instruction and Assessment);

3.  create learning environments that empower students by encouraging positive social interactions, active engagement in learning, self-motivation, democratic decision-making, equity, and social justice (Learning Environments);

4.  reflect on instruction and assessment in order to improve student learning (Reflection);

5.  actively seek opportunities to grow professionally (Professional Growth);

6.  serve and lead in communities of learners, including classrooms, schools, and the wider communities (Leadership);

7.  use knowledge of individuals, families, communities, and cultures to create communities of learners (Collaboration with Partners Outside the School Setting); and

8.   recognize the importance of working cooperatively with teachers, staff, and administrators to create positive school cultures (Collaboration with Partners Within the School Setting).

KNOWLEDGE-BASES OF THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

The mission and goals of the Program that are identified above were derived from the knowledge-bases articulated below.

Development

“A thorough understanding of how students learn is essential to quality teaching. Effective teachers must understand the processes and strategies students use to construct knowledge, and use this understanding to create learning activities appropriate for students’ ages, abilities and learning styles. Effective teachers understand the impact of students’ backgrounds and experiences on their learning. They connect instruction to students’ needs, interests, and prior knowledge. They understand the abilities and talents of their students, and use that knowledge to determine appropriate learning activities and identify resources for students that foster rich learning opportunities. Teachers’ sense of efficacy results in their persistence to help all students learn and achieve at high levels” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

The Program’s focus on development is grounded in constructivism—the theory that learning takes place when learners add to or revise their own knowledge based on the connections they make between what is already known or believed and the learning activities they experience within a social context.

Individuals learn best when they are both successful and challenged. In developmentally appropriate practice—for learners of all ages and abilities—learning activities are chosen to provide opportunities for success and growth. Developmentally appropriate practice is rooted in cognitive development theory, which states that children move through an ordered set of developmental stages (Piaget, 1954). According to Vygotsky (1978), optimal learning takes place in the “zone of proximal development,” in which learners can function through “scaffolding” by teachers or more accomplished learners at a higher level than they are able to function on their own, neither repeating what they already know nor struggling with what they are not yet ready to learn.

Learning takes place when individuals connect what they are learning to what they already know. According to Ausubel (1968), the most important factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. In a constructivist classroom, a teacher begins with what the learner knows, and then provides authentic learning tasks that allow the learner to alter his view of the world to more nearly match reality by adding new knowledge or rethinking misconceptions (Dewey, 1916; Piaget, 1954; Vygotsky, 1978).

An important way in which teachers connect learning is through curriculum integration, the bringing together of concepts and skills from different areas to answer guiding questions developed jointly by teacher and students (Jacobs, 1989). Through curriculum integration, learners are given the opportunity to make connections, find patterns, and organize knowledge in meaningful ways (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1996; National Middle School Association, 1995).

Construction of knowledge is a social endeavor, and collaborative partnerships—from cooperative learning groups in early childhood settings to teacher education advisory boards at the graduate level—increase the ability of a group to define, research, and gather resources to solve problems (Johnson & Johnson, 1984; Slick, 1995). And in working cooperatively in groups, each individual grows as well, expanding his or her abilities to teach and learn, lead and follow.

Candidates promote their own development through study of educational research and active reflection of their own beliefs and actions. Educational research is a powerful resource for improving education (Shulman, 1999). Only by examining teaching and learning in a systematic and thoughtful way can we determine “best practice” for educating our students. And it is not just experience but experience with reflection that promotes development of the candidate as teacher and leader. Reflective teachers are “students of learning,” learning all they can about teaching and monitoring their own performance in order to improve it (Cruikshank, 1987). Through study, reflection, and interaction with colleagues in professional settings, including conferences and workshops, teachers become lifelong learners.

Teacher-Leaders

According to Robert K. Greenleaf (1991), the way some people serve is to lead. A servant-leader is a servant first. Above all, the leader wants to serve. The effectiveness of the servant-leader is gauged by the answer to these questions: Do those who are served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become “healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants”? The Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program has adopted this view of leadership as consistent with the Program’s mission and with the regional culture in which candidates work and live.

Early in their professional careers, teachers focus on nurturing the development of the students in their classrooms. As they gain experience and knowledge, they expand their service by becoming mentors, master teachers, department heads, team leaders, curriculum developers, and staff developers. While some continue to serve as teachers, others become administrators. At all levels, Muskingum University educators serve those they lead. This leadership, which is also grounded in theories of development and empowerment, is based on collaboration, participative democracy, and the sharing of power and information (Darling-Hammond, 1998).

Encouraging All Students to Succeed

In order to encourage all students to succeed, teachers must have an in-depth knowledge of learners and the processes of learning and motivation. Candidates need to understand and skillfully use principles of positive reinforcement (Alberto & Troutman, 2003; Skinner, 1953) as they encourage students to reach achievable yet challenging goals. They must be able to recognize how students vary widely in their need for intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation and then develop learning opportunities that address their students’ current motivational needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Just as candidates are expected to become more intrinsically motivated as they experience success in the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program, they are also expected to develop the knowledge and skills needed to enable their students to become more intrinsically motivated as they, too, experience academic success.

Finally, to provide personalized encouragement to diverse students, candidates must understand the varied contexts and cultures in which students live and learn (Golnick & Chinn, 1994). Many candidates and the students they will someday be teaching have been reared in environments where intrinsic motivation, an appreciation for challenge, and an excitement for learning “for learning’s sake” are not valued. They have been reared in environments where punishment is more prevalent than encouragement and material rewards are more valued than social or intrinsic rewards (Payne, 2003). The Program must recognize and appreciate the behaviors and values that have been reinforced during candidates’ early years and work to develop “habits of mind” that are associated with life-long learning. Likewise, candidates must be enabled to recognize the behaviors and attitudes that have been reinforced in their students’ early years and to develop the knowledge and skills needed to enable learners to attribute their success to their efforts (Weiner, 1986) and, over time, develop self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997).

Equipping Candidates with the Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions to Help All Students Succeed

Being a subject matter expert is a necessary but insufficient requirement for teaching. Teachers must also possess general pedagogical knowledge, knowledge of the pedagogy specific to the subject matter they teach, and knowledge of the context of education—districts, schools, communities and students (Grossman, 1990; Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, 1999; Shulman, 1986, 1987). It is particularly important that teachers be accomplished in the pedagogy specific to their particular content area, or pedagogical content knowledge. Grossman (1990) included the following in her description of pedagogical content knowledge: (1) knowledge and beliefs about the purposes of teaching specific content at specific grade levels, (2) knowledge of students’ understanding, misunderstanding, and misconceptions in a particular content area, (3) knowledge of curriculum materials, as well as the scope and sequence of a content area, and (4) knowledge of instructional strategies for teaching in a particular content area.

Appropriate use of technology, including assistive technology, is an important component of the learning process in both instruction and assessment. Candidates must have the experience to use technology to promote learning for themselves and for their students.

Muskingum University candidates must know that assessment is an ongoing process aimed at understanding and improving student learning. Assessment should be both formative and summative and should include multiple measures over time, relying heavily on authentic assessment through products and performances. Assessments are most powerful when they are closely aligned with learning objectives, typified in Ohio by the indicators and benchmarks of the Ohio Academic Content Standards, reliable, and free from sources of bias. Students learn more in environments in which the relationship between learning and assessment is clear and consistent (Crooks, 1988).

Empowering All Students to Succeed

Candidates must  be taught to provide the environment for their students that the Program provides for them—one in which individuals are empowered through knowledge, experience, and critical inquiry to make choices, decisions, and actions that are in their own and their families' best interests. These environments include the following: (1) knowledge of education as a social and political process (Freire, 1972); (2) understanding the relationship of culture and behavior (Payne, 2003); (3) the use of "powerful literacy" to make one's voice heard (Finn, 1999); (4) the recognition of the use of critical inquiry and formal and informal discourse in spoken and written language; (5) the use of data to inform and persuade (Batelle, 2003); (6) promotion of positive and democratic social interaction between individuals and in groups; (7) promotion and modeling of democratic decision-making in classrooms, schools, and districts (Dewey, 1916); and (8) promotion of equity and social justice at all levels and in all organizations through strategies of critical pedagogy which examine the relationships between teachers and students, knowledge and power, language and experience, and student activism and social transformation (Giroux & McLaren, 1996.)

All Students

The most important belief underlying the conceptual framework of the Muskingum University Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program is the belief that everyone can learn. Each person has the potential to grow—intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically, and students achieve more when their teachers have high expectations for their achievement (Council for Exceptional Children, 1997; Dewey, 1916; Gibson & Ogbu, 1991; National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1996; National Middle School Association, 1995).

Believing this, the Program must provide candidates with learning experiences in inclusive classrooms that are designed to address diverse cultures, knowledge, experiences, skills, interests, abilities, disabilities, and learning styles. Diversity strengthens society (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1995), and teachers must use—indeed, celebrate—the unique background and contribution of each learner to the learning community (Dunn, R., & Dunn, K., 1978; Gardner, H., 1983; Golnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C., 2002; Tomlinson, 1999; Wood, J. W., 2002).

In addition to the above knowledge-bases articulated for the components of the Program’s mission, the following identifies selected findings from the literature that are intended to support that the eight goals of the Program, as identified above, are noteworthy in serving as the foundation for the development of beginning teachers.

1.  Student Growth and Development

“A thorough understanding of how students learn is essential to quality teaching. Effective teachers must understand the processes and strategies students use to construct knowledge, and use this understanding to create learning activities appropriate for students’ ages, abilities and learning styles. Effective teachers understand the impact of students’ backgrounds and experiences on their learning. They connect instruction to students’ needs, interests and prior knowledge. They understand the abilities and talents of their students, and use that knowledge to determine appropriate learning activities and identify resources for students that foster rich learning opportunities. Teachers’ sense of efficacy results in their persistence to help all students learn and achieve at high levels” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

2.  Instruction and Assessment

“A deep understanding of content is essential for teachers to have the power to positively impact student learning and achievement. Teachers must understand the structures and the history of the content they teach, and recognize that the content is not static but complex and evolving. Effective teachers demonstrate a deep and reflective understanding of content-specific practices, processes and vocabulary. They connect the content and skills of their disciplines to the Ohio Academic Content Standards and are committed to staying abreast of current research and development within their disciplines. These teachers make content meaningful, relevant and applicable to students by making connections between the content that they teach and other content areas, real life experiences and career opportunities.

Effective teachers have high expectations for all students and implement strategies designed to enable all students to achieve. They continually reflect on student outcomes to make appropriate decisions resulting in increased student success. Effective teachers have a deep knowledge of the content they teach. This content knowledge allows them to effectively sequence content for learning and structure differentiated opportunities for student remediation, reinforcement or acceleration. Effective teachers use a variety of research-based instructional strategies that provide challenging and positive learning experiences for all students. These teachers build ideas and concepts logically to lead students to comprehend more complex concepts and encourage higher order creative and critical thinking skills. They use effective questioning strategies to stimulate thinking. Effective teachers explore, evaluate and integrate learning tools, including technology, to make content comprehensible to students.

The professional imperative of teachers is to maximize student learning and eliminate gaps between students’ potential and their performance. Toward that end, the relationship between instruction and assessment is purposeful, interdependent and recursive. Effective teachers are assessment-literate. They use multiple assessments to learn about their students, to plan and adjust instruction and to evaluate student learning. Teachers have sufficient knowledge and skills in probability and statistics to use a variety of assessment data to plan effectively for all students. Teachers use formal and informal assessment data to determine the incremental development of students based on the Ohio Academic Content Standards. Teachers encourage students to critically examine their own work and foster their students’ ability to become knowledgeable of how they learn. Teachers provide students and parents with formative assessment results and provide them with strategies to improve student learning” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

3.  Learning Environments

"Teachers create a learning environment that promotes high levels of achievement for all students and in which all students feel a responsibility for their own learning. Teachers orchestrate the learning environment to maximize each student’s opportunities to learn. They create a content-rich and reflective learning environment for students. Teachers recognize that students learn in a variety of formal and informal settings. They motivate students by demonstrating enthusiasm for the subject(s) they teach. Teachers create a learning environment where all students feel safe, valued and enjoy a sense of belonging” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

4.   Reflection

As John Dewey (1933) said, "Experience plus reflection equals growth". Likewise, research promotes reflective teaching as an important distinguishing strategy between experienced and novice teachers and is a critical tool for developing teacher knowledge. Reflective teaching practices are supported by national reform efforts and have the potential to affect student achievement (Lowery, 2003). Donald Schön (1983) suggested that the capacity to reflect on action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning is one of the defining characteristics of professional practice. Since teaching is a scholarly, professional activity, its backbone is thorough reflection on ends and means (CETaL, 2011). Through reflection one can assess his/her conclusions, actions and work processes to further his/her professional development (Dewey, 1932; ALPS, 2011) and to impact student learning. And again, to quote Dewey (1933),  "…quality educators and education cannot  be derived from the imitation of techniques that have worked in the past, but rather teachers should be trained in analyzing and defining principles behind the techniques. In short, it is theorized that the more teacher reflectivity occurs, the better the quality of teaching." 

5.   Professional Growth

"Teachers are professionals who must recognize that they are in a unique and powerful position to influence the future of their students. It is imperative that teachers practice the highest standards of integrity, honesty, and fairness. Effective teachers grow and learn, contribute to the profession and engage in continuous professional development” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

6.   Leadership

“Effective teachers are leaders within the school community and engage in a variety of leadership roles. They ensure student achievement and well-being by participating in decision-making, initiating innovations for school change and fostering ongoing collaboration with colleagues. Teachers serve as change agents in the learning community by thinking and acting critically and addressing concerns related to inequities among students” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

7.   Collaboration with Partners Outside the School Setting

"Teachers understand the role of communication in their profession and use it to foster active inquiry, and collaborative and supportive interaction in and out of the classroom. They value families as an integral component of teaching and learning. Teachers acknowledge what families have to offer and provide opportunities for them to contribute to the learning. community. Teachers demonstrate respect for confidentiality with students and their families and create relationships built on trust” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

8.   Collaboration with Partners within the School Setting

“Teachers collaborate with their colleagues within the school learning community and in the larger community to share responsibility for the development and learning of all students. Recognizing that they can learn from each other, teachers form learning communities and engage in coaching, mentoring, modeling, and work in teams to develop curriculum and assessments” (Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession, 2005).

PROFICIENCIES EXPECTED OF ALL CANDIDATES ACROSS THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER   PREPARATION PROGRAM

In keeping with the mission, philosophy, purpose, and goals described earlier, the following serve as the proficiencies expected of all candidates across the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program.  These candidate proficiencies, along with the standards of the respective specialized professional associations (SPAs), provide direction for developing and aligning the curriculum, instruction, field experiences, student teaching, and assessments of candidate performance and the management and operations of the Program.

1.  Student Growth and Development: The teacher candidate helps students develop intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically.

Knowledge

Equip

1K1. The teacher candidate is able to identify all aspects of a student's development -intellectual, ethical, social, and physical-and the impact each aspect has on student learning.

Empower

1K2. The teacher candidate articulates an understanding of diverse* abilities, beliefs, values, and practices across cultures.

Encourage

1K3. The teacher candidate knows the diverse* backgrounds and experiences of the students with whom he or she works.

Skills

Empower

1S1. The teacher candidate demonstrates respect for cultural, ethnic, religious, gender, ability, physical, and sexual orientation differences of individual students.

Encourage

1S2. The teacher candidate encourages and motivates students to  develop intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically according to their individual differences, backgrounds, and experiences.

Dispositions

Empower

1D1. The teacher candidate views students as unique persons.

Empower

1D2. The teacher candidate views all students as having the ability to make decisions and to take action to promote their own development.

Encourage

1D3. The teacher candidate demonstrates an appreciation for human diversity*, including English Language Learners (ELL) and students with exceptionalities.

Empower

1D4. The teacher candidate views all students as being strong and capable.

2.  Instruction and Assessment: The teacher candidate sets learning goals and plans and that all learners are both successful and challenged.

Knowledge

Equip

2K1. The teacher candidate knows and understands the content knowledge necessary to provide effective instruction for all students including English Language Learners (ELL) and student with exceptionalities.

Equip

2K2. The teacher candidate knows and understands the pedagogical content knowledge (content-specific instructional strategies) necessary to provide effective instruction for all students including English Language Learners (ELL) and student with exceptionalities.

Equip

2K3. The teacher candidate knows and understands the pedagogical knowledge necessary to provide effective instruction for all students including English Language Learners (ELL) and student with exceptionalities.

Equip

2K4. The teacher candidate possesses knowledge of individual and cultural differences that enables him or her to develop differentiated learning goals, learning activities, and assessments that are appropriate for each student and to make adaptations when additional intervention is needed.

Equip

2K5. The teacher candidate understands the relationship of knowledge within the discipline to other content areas.

Equip

2K6. The teacher candidate is knowledgeable about assessment types, purposes, and resulting data.

Skills

Equip

2S1. The teacher candidate uses accurate content knowledge to plan instruction.

Eqip

2S2. The teacher candidate uses the pedagogical content knowledge (content-specific instructional strategies) necessary to provide effective instruction for all students including English Language Learners (ELL) and student with exceptionalities.

Equip

2S3. The teacher candidate uses the pedagogical knowledge necessary to provide effective instruction for all students including English Language Learners (ELL) and student with exceptionalities.

Equip

2S4. The teacher candidate uses information about each student, including individual and cultural differences, to select content and instructional strategies to meet the intellectual, ethical, social, and physical needs of all students.

Encourage

2S5. The teacher candidate motivates, challenges, and encourages every student to be successful by addressing individual differences through differentiated learning goals, teaching methods, student activities, and resources.

Equip

2S6. The teacher candidate uses a variety of assessments to determine prior learning and plans instruction that connects what is already known to what has yet to be learned.

Equip

2S7. The teacher candidate uses research to inform instructional decisions.

Empower

2S8. The teacher candidate connects content to relevant life experiences and career opportunities.

Equip

2S9. The teacher candidate selects, develops, and uses a variety of assessments.

Equip

2S10. The teacher candidate aligns his/her instructional goals and activities with school and district priorities and Ohio's academic content standards.

Equip

2S11. The teacher candidate communicates clear learning goals.

Equip

2S12. The teacher candidate explicitly links learning activities to defined learning goals.

Equip

2S13. The teacher candidate uses resources effectively, including technology, to enhance student learning.

Empower

2S14. The teacher candidate adapts written and oral communications to appropriate situations, including modeling formal standard English in the classroom.

Dispositions

Equip

2D1. The teacher candidate is committed to providing significant learning experiences that are based on the developmental uniqueness of each student.

Empower

2D2. The teacher candidate believes that every student can be successful and that it is the teacher's responsibility to provide differentiated learning opportunities that promote success.

3.  Learning Environments: The teacher candidate creates a learning environment that empowers students by encouraging positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, self-motivation, democratic decision-making, equity, and social justice.

Knowledge

Equip

3K1. The teacher candidate knows the environmental factors that contribute to the individual, social, emotional, and physical development of all students. 

Empower

3K2. The teacher candidate recognizes issues related to the environmental and personal barriers that hinder accessibility and acceptance of individuals with disabilities.

Skills

Equip

3S1. The teacher candidate uses room arrangement, grouping patterns, learning resources, and materials to support environmental decisions.

Empower

3S2. The teacher candidate demonstrates fairness and respect in the treatment of students and actively encourages fairness and mutual respect among students.

Empower

3S3. The teacher candidate creates fair and equitable learning opportunities for all students.

Empower

3S4. The teacher candidate is able to create an environment in which students make decisions about their own management and learning.

Dispositions

Encourage

3D1. The teacher candidate is committed to creating learning environments that are healthy, respectful, supportive, and challenging for all students.

Encourage

3D2. The teacher candidate values the role that positive classroom and school-wide environments have on the development of students.

Encourage

3D3. The teacher candidate establishes and maintains rapport with students.

4.  Reflection: The teacher candidate reflects on instruction and assessment in order to improve student learning. 

Knowledge

Equip

4K1. The teacher candidate knows that instruction and assessment are integral components of Response to Intervention (RTI) in systematically improving education for all students.

Skills

Equip

4S1. The teacher candidate actively uses a variety of methods, including data analysis, to reflect on lessons and activities and to analyze the experiences for future lessons and activities.

Dispositions

Equip

4D1. The teacher candidate values reflection as a strategy for improving student learning.

Empower

4D2. The teacher candidate demonstrates a sense of efficacy.

5.  Professional Growth: The teacher candidate actively seeks opportunities to grow professionally. 

Knowledge

Equip

5K1. The teacher candidate knows a variety of meaningful methods for improving his or her performance including research, literature, conferences, seminars, in-services, and interactions with colleagues, parents, and students.

Skills

Empower

5S1. The teacher candidate uses a variety of meaningful methods to reflect on, assess, and implement improvement plans individually and in collaboration with others.

Dispositions

Equip

5D1. The teacher candidate is committed to an on-going process of developing as a professional.

Encourage

5D2. The teacher candidate projects a professional attitude.

Encourage

5D3. The teacher candidate projects a professional appearance.

Encourage

5D4. The teacher candidate projects professional behavior.

6.  Leadership: The teacher candidate serves and leads in communities of learners, including classrooms, schools, and the wider communities.

Knowledge

Empower

6K1. The teacher candidate knows a variety of ways in which teacher-leadership skills may be demonstrated in the classroom.

Skills

Empower

6S1. The teacher candidate demonstrates teacher-leadership skills appropriate to his or her teaching assignment.

Empower

6S2. The teacher candidate acts as a change agent to promote a more equitable and just world.

Empower

6S3. The teacher candidate is willing to assume leadership roles.

Dispositions

Empower

6D1. The teacher candidate views leadership as a way to serve others and in doing so promotes equity and social justice.

7.  Collaboration with Partners Outside the School Setting: The teacher candidate uses knowledge of individuals, families, communities, and cultures to create a community of learners.

Knowledge

Empower

7K1. The teacher candidate knows a variety of methods for learning about the families and communities of the students with whom he or she works.

Empower

7K2. The teacher candidate knows how to engage all stakeholders in the learning process.

Skills

Encourage

7S1. The teacher candidate uses information about students' families and communities to create experiences that inspire a sense of belonging and support.

Encourage

7S2. The teacher candidate is able to communicate effectively and to work collaboratively with all stakeholders.

Dispositions

Empower

7D1. The teacher candidate values the uniqueness of each student and the families and communities from which a student comes.

Empower

7D2. The teacher candidate appreciates the role of families and communities in student learning.

8.  Collaboration with Partners Within the School Setting: The teacher candidate recognizes the importance of working cooperatively with teachers, staff, and administrators to create a positive school culture.  

Knowledge

Encourage

8K1. The teacher candidate possesses knowledge of school climate factors that impact student learning.

Encourage

8K2. The teacher candidate possesses knowledge of communication and collaboration skills needed to work in an encouraging environment.

Skills

Empower

8S1. The teacher candidate works cooperatively with teachers, staff, and administrators toward the common goal of helping all students grow and learn.

Dispositions

Empower

8D1. The teacher candidate recognizes the power of working cooperatively and collaboratively with other teachers, staff, and administrators.

Equip

8D2. The teacher candidate respects learning and is willing to learn, including accepting suggestions from others.

ALIGNMENT OF CANDIDATE PROFICIENCIES WITH PROFESSIONAL AND STATE STANDARDS

The grid below displays the alignment of the candidate proficiencies for the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program of the Educator Preparation Unit with professional and state standards. In particular, it shows the alignment of the candidate proficiencies with: (1) National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions and Standard 4: Diversity [2008]; (2) Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) Model Core Teaching Standards [2010 DRAFT]; and (3) Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession (OSTP) [2005]. 

1.  Student Growth and Development: The teacher candidate helps students develop intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically.               

Knowledge

Professional and State Standards

Equip

1K1. The teacher candidate is able to identify all aspects of a student's development - intellectual, ethical, social, and physical-and the impact each aspect has on student learning.

INTASC: 1

OSTP: 1.1 and 1.5

 

Empower

1K2. The teacher candidate articulates an understanding of diverse abilities, beliefs, values, and practices across cultures.

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 1.4 

Encourage

1K3. The teacher candidate knows the diverse backgrounds and experiences of the students with whom he or she works.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 1.2, 1.4, and 1.5

Skills

 

Empower

1S1. The teacher candidate demonstrates respect for cultural, ethnic, religious, gender, ability, physical, and sexual orientation differences of individual students.

NCATE: 1g, 4a

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 5.2 and 5.5

Encourage

1S2. The teacher candidate encourages and motivates students to  develop intellectually, ethically, socially, and physically according to their individual differences, backgrounds, and experiences.

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5

 

Dispositions

 

Empower

1D1. The teacher candidate views students as unique persons.

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 1.4

Empower

1D2. The teacher candidate views all students as having the ability to make decisions and to take action to promote their own development.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 5.3

Encourage

1D3. The teacher candidate demonstrates an appreciation for human diversity*.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 1.4 and 5.1

Empower

 1D4. The teacher candidate views all students as being strong and capable.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 1.3

2.  Instruction and Assessment: The teacher candidate sets learning goals and plans and implements   learning activities and assessments that ensure that all learners are both successful and challenged. 

Knowledge

 

Equip

2K1. The teacher candidate knows and understands the content knowledge necessary to provide effective instruction for all students.

NCATE: 1a

INTASC: 4

OSTP: 2.1

Equip

2K2. The teacher candidate knows and understands the pedagogical content knowledge (content-specific instructional strategies) necessary to provide effective instruction for all students.

NCATE: 1b

INTASC: 4

OSTP: 4 

Equip

2K3. The teacher candidate knows and understands the pedagogical knowledge necessary to provide effective instruction for all students.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 8

OSTP: 2.1 

Equip

2K4. The teacher candidate possesses knowledge of individual and cultural differences that enables him or her to develop differentiated learning goals, learning activities, and assessments that are appropriate for each student and to make adaptations when additional intervention is needed.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 4.1 

Equip

2K5. The teacher candidate understands the relationship of knowledge within the discipline to other content areas.

INTASC: 8

OSTP: 2.4 

Equip

2K6. The teacher candidate is knowledgeable about assessment types, purposes, and resulting data.

NCATE: 1d

INTASC: 6

OSTP: 3.1 

Skills

 

Equip

2S1. The teacher candidate uses accurate content knowledge to plan instruction.

NCATE: 1a

INTASC: 4

OSTP: 2.1 

Equip

2S2. The teacher candidate uses the pedagogical content knowledge (content-specific instructional strategies) necessary to provide effective instruction for all students.

NCATE: 1b

INTASC: 4

OSTP: 4 

Equip

2S3. The teacher candidate uses the pedagogical knowledge necessary to provide effective instruction for all students.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 8

OSTP: 2.1 

Equip

2S4. The teacher candidate uses information about each student, including individual and cultural differences, to select content and instructional strategies to meet the intellectual, ethical, social, and physical needs of all students.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 7

OSTP: 4.2 and 4.4 

Encourage

2S5. The teacher candidate motivates, challenges, and encourages every student to be successful by addressing individual differences through differentiated learning goals, teaching methods, student activities, and resources.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 7 and 8

OSTP: 4.5 

Equip

2S6. The teacher candidate uses a variety of assessment to determine prior learning and plans instruction that connects what is already known to what has yet to be learned.

NCATE: 1c and 1d

INTASC: 6 and 7

OSTP: 3.3 and 4.2 

Equip

2S7. The teacher candidate uses research to inform instructional decisions.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 7

OSTP: 2.1, 2.4, 4.4, and 4.7

Empower

2S8.The teacher candidate connects content to relevant life experiences and career opportunities.

NCATE: 1b

INTASC: 7

OSTP: 2.5 

Equip

2S9. The teacher candidate selects develops and uses a variety of assessments.

NCATE: 1d

INTASC: 6

OSTP: 3.2 

Equip

2S10. The teacher candidate aligns his/her instructional goals and activities with school and district priorities and Ohio's academic content standards.

OSTP: 4.1

 

Equip

2S11. The teacher candidate communicates clear learning goals.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 8

OSTP: 4.3

Equip

2S12. The teacher candidate explicitly links learning activities to defined learning goals.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 8

OSTP: 4.3 

Equip

2S13. The teacher candidate uses resources effectively, including technology, to enhance student learning.

NCATE: 1b

INTASC: 7

OSTP: 4.7 

Empower

2S14. The teacher candidate adapts written and oral communications to appropriate situations, including modeling formal standard English in the classroom.

INTASC: 8

OSTP: 6.1

 

Dispositions

 

Equip

2D1. The teacher candidate is committed to providing significant learning experiences that are based on the developmental uniqueness of each student.

NCATE: 1d

INTASC: 1

OSTP: 4.2 

Empower

2D2. The teacher candidate believes that every student can be successful and that it is the teacher's responsibility to provide differentiated learning opportunities that promote success.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 2

OSTP: 1.3 

3.  Learning Environments: The teacher candidate creates a learning environment that empowers students by encouraging positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, self-motivation, democratic decision-making, equity, and social justice. 

Knowledge

 

Equip

3K1. The teacher candidate knows the environmental factors that contribute to the individual, social, emotional, and physical development of all students. 

NCATE: 1d

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 5.2 

Empower

3K2. The teacher candidate recognizes issues related to the environmental and personal barriers that hinder accessibility and acceptance of individuals with disabilities.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 1.4 and 1.5

 

Skills

 

Equip

3S1. The teacher candidate uses room arrangement, grouping patterns, learning resources, and materials to support environmental decisions.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 5.4 and 5.5 

Empower

3S2. The teacher candidate demonstrates fairness and respect in the treatment of students and actively encourages fairness and mutual respect among students.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 5.1 

Empower

3S3. The teacher candidate creates fair and equitable learning opportunities for all students.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 7

OSTP: 5.1 

Empower

3S4. The teacher candidate is able to create an environment in which students make decisions about their own management and learning.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 3.5, 4.6, and 5.3

 

Dispositions

 

Encourage

3D1. The teacher candidate is committed to creating learning environments that are healthy, respectful, supportive, and challenging for all students.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 5.2

Encourage

3D2. The teacher candidate values the role that positive classroom and school-wide environments have on the development of students.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 5.2 

Encourage

3D3. The teacher candidate establishes and maintains rapport with students.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 5.3 and 5.5 

4.  Reflection: The teacher candidate reflects on instruction and assessment in order to improve student learning. 

Knowledge

 

Equip

4K1. The teacher candidate knows that instruction and assessment are integral components of Response to Intervention (RTI) in systematically improving education for all students.

INTASC: 9

OSTP: 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 6.3, and 7.3 

Skills

 

Equip

4S1. The teacher candidate actively uses a variety of methods, including data analysis, to reflect on lessons and activities and to analyze the experiences for future lessons and activities.

NCATE: 1d

INTASC: 9

OSTP: 3.3 

Dispositions

 

Equip

4D1. The teacher candidate values reflection as a strategy for improving student learning.

NCATE: 1c and 1d

INTASC: 9

OSTP: 4.4 

Empower

4D2. The teacher candidate demonstrates a sense of efficacy.

INTASC: 9

OSTP: 4.4, 4.6, and 5.1

5.  Professional Growth: The teacher candidate actively seeks opportunities to grow professionally. 

Knowledge

 

Equip

5K1. The teacher candidate knows a variety of meaningful methods for improving his or her performance including research, literature, conferences, seminars, in-services, and interactions with colleagues, parents, and students.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 9

OSTP: 7.2

 

Skills

 

Empower

5S1. The teacher candidate uses a variety of meaningful methods to reflect on, assess, and implement improvement plans individually and in collaboration with others.

INTASC: 9 and 10

OSTP: 6.4 and 7.2

 

Dispositions

 

Equip

5D1. The teacher candidate is committed to an on-going process of developing as a professional.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 7.2 

Encourage

5D2. The teacher candidate projects a professional attitude.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 7.1

Encourage

5D3. The teacher candidate projects a professional appearance.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 7.1

Encourage

5D4. The teacher candidate projects professional behavior.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 7.1

6.  Leadership: The teacher candidate serves and leads in communities of learners, including classrooms, schools, and the wider communities.

Knowledge

 

Empower

6K1. The teacher candidate knows a variety of ways in which teacher-leadership skills may be demonstrated in the classroom.

NCATE: 1c

OSTP: 7.3 

Skills

 

Empower

6S1. The teacher candidate demonstrates teacher-leadership skills appropriate to his or her teaching assignment.

NCATE: 1c

OSTP: 7.1 

Empower

6S2. The teacher candidate acts as a change agent to promote a more equitable and just world.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 7.3 

Empower

6S3. The teacher candidate is willing to assume leadership roles.

NCATE: 1c

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 7.3

Dispositions

 

Empower

6D1. The teacher candidate views leadership as a way to serve others and in doing so promotes equity and social justice.

OSTP: 7.3

 

7.  Collaboration with Partners Outside the School Setting: The teacher candidate uses knowledge of individuals, families, communities, and cultures to create a community of learners.

Knowledge

 

Empower

7K1. The teacher candidate knows a variety of methods for learning about the families and communities of the students with whom he or she works.

OSTP: 6.4

 

Empower

7K2. The teacher candidate knows how to engage all stakeholders in the learning process.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 6.2

Skills

 

Encourage

7S1. The teacher candidate uses information about students' families and communities to create experiences that inspire a sense of belonging and support.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 6.2

 

Encourage

7S2. The teacher candidate is able to communicate effectively and to work collaboratively with all stakeholders.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 3.4

Dispositions

 

Empower

7D1. The teacher candidate values the uniqueness of each student and the families and communities from which a student comes.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 6.2 and 6.4

Empower

7D2. The teacher candidate appreciates the role of families and communities in student learning.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 6.2 and 6.4

8.  Collaboration with Partners Within the School Setting: The teacher candidate recognizes the importance of working cooperatively with teachers, staff, and administrators to create a positive school culture.  

Knowledge

 

Encourage

8K1. The teacher candidate possesses knowledge of school climate factors that impact student learning.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 2.3 

Encourage

8K2. The teacher candidate possesses knowledge of communication and collaboration skills needed to work in an encouraging environment.

INTASC: 3

OSTP: 2.3 

Skills

 

Empower

8S1. The teacher candidate works cooperatively with teachers, staff, and administrators toward the common goal of helping all students grow and learn.

NCATE: 1g

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 6.3 

Dispositions

 

Empower

8D1. The teacher candidate recognizes the power of working cooperatively and collaboratively with other teachers, staff, and administrators.

INTASC: 10

OSTP: 6.3 

Equip

8D2. The teacher candidate respects learning and is willing to learn, including accepting suggestions from others.

INTASC: 9

OSTP: 6.3 

ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE INITIAL TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

The assessment system for the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program is designed to collect, summarize, and analyze data regarding (1) candidate performance, (2) program completer performance, and (3) the management and operations of the Program. Results are then used to evaluate, make decisions concerning, and improve the performances of the Program’s candidates and the Program.  The Data Collection, Compilation, Analysis, Dissemination, Unit and Stakeholder Review, and Use Policy (see Section 6), as approved by the education department faculty, drives the implementation of the assessment system.  

  • Assessment of Candidate Performance 

The assessment system is designed to assess candidate performance on candidate proficiencies articulated in the conceptual framework across three gateways. The gateways are: (1) admission into licensure program, (2) transition into student teaching, and (3) exit from licensure program. Section 3 of this document identifies the requirements of each gateway.

The chart below details the eight key program assessments noted in Section 3 of this document. The chart includes the gateways, key program assessments, candidate proficiencies assessed, course(s) in which each assessment is administered, and assessor.

Gateway

Key Program Assessments (KPA)

Candidate Proficiencies Assessed 

Course in which Assessment is Administered

Assessor

1

KPA #1: Assessment of Professional Dispositions I

 

1D1, 1D2, 1D3, 1D4, 2D2, 3D2, 4D2, 5D1, 5D2, 5D3, 5D4, 6D1, 7D2, 8D1, and 8D2

EDUC 112

Course Instructor

2

KPA #2: Assessment of Professional Dispositions II

1D1, 1D2, 1D3, 1D4, 2D1, 2D2, 3D1, 3D2, 3D3, 4D1, 4D2, 5D1, 5D2, 5D3, 5D4, 6D1, 7D1, 7D2, 8D1, and 8D2

EDUC 412/413

Cooperating Teacher

2

KPA #3: Pre-Student Teaching

1K1, 1S1, 1S2, 2K1, 2K2, 2K4, 2K5, 2K6, 2S1, 2S2, 2S4, 2S5, 2S6, 2S7, 2S8, 2S9, 2S10, 2S11, 2S12, 2S13, 2S14, 3K1, 3K2, 3S1, 3S2, 3S3, 3S4, 4K1, 4S1, 5K1, 5S1, 6S1, 6S2, 6S3, 7K1, 7K2, 7S1, 7S2, and 8S1

EDUC 412/413

Cooperating Teacher

3

KPA #4: Assessment of Professional Dispositions III

1D1, 1D2, 1D3, 1D4, 2D1, 2D2, 3D1, 3D2, 3D3, 4D1, 4D2, 5D1, 5D2, 5D3, 5D4, , 6D1, 7D1, 7D2, 8D1, and 8D2

EDUC 432/449/450/

451/455/

457/623/626

ART 455/457

MUSIC 482/483

Cooperating Teacher

3

KPA #5: Student Teaching

1K1, 1S1, 1S2, 2K1, 2K2, 2K4, 2K5, 2K6, 2S1, 2S2, 2S4, 2S5, 2S6, 2S7, 2S8, 2S9, 2S10, 2S11, 2S12, 2S13, 2S14, 3K1, 3K2, 3S1, 3S2, 3S3, 3S4, 4K1, 4S1, 5K1, 5S1, 6S1, 6S2, 6S3, 7K1, 7K2, 7S1, 7S2, and 8S1

EDUC 432/449/450/

451/455/

457/623/626

ART 455/457

MUSIC 482/483

University Supervisor

3

KPA #6: Ability to Plan Lessons

1K3, 2K1, 2K2, 2K3, 2K4, 2K5, 2K6, 2S1, 2S2, 2S3, 2S4, 2S6, 2S10, 2S11, 2S12, 2S13, 3S1, and 4S1

EDUC 418/ 465/466/627

Portfolio Assessor

3

KPA #7: Environmental and Behavioral Support Project

1K2, 6K1, 8K1, and 8K2

EDUC 418/ 465/466/627

Portfolio Assessor

3

KPA #8: Effect on Student Learning

1K3, 2S6, 2S9, 2S11, 3S4, 4K1, 4S1, and 7S2

EDUC 418/ 465/466/627

Portfolio Assessor

Section 4 of this Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program Conceptual Framework and Related Materials document provides a chart detailing the alignment of candidate proficiencies, as articulated in the conceptual framework, with the respective items of each key program assessment according to gateways.

In addition to the asessment of candidate performance on candidate proficiencies articulated in the conceptual famework, candidate performance is also evaluated through key licensure assessments aligned with respective specialized professional association (SPA) standards.

Section 5 of this Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program Conceptual Framework and Related Materials document provides a chart detailing the key licensure assessments, including the gateways at which assessment data are used; names of assessments; as applicable, course numbers related to assessments; and identification of those administering and grading and/or assessing the respective assessments.

An overview of and the scoring guide for each key program assessment and for each key licensure assessment are available through the Educator Preparation Unit Accreditation web site on Blackboard http://courses.muskingum.edu/ and in the office of the Educator Preparation Assessment Specialist.

  • Follow-up Studies of Program Completers and Employer Feedback
Data are gathered from program completers immediately upon completion of their programs and again three years from the date of program completion. Data are also collected from 29 superintendents of school districts in which candidates complete field work and who employ a significant number of Muskingum University program completers.

The focus of the data gathered is the degree to which program completers were prepared to fulfill the eight goals of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program.

The questionnaires used to gather data from program completers and their respective employers are available through the Educator Preparation Unit Accreditation web site on Blackboard (http://courses.muskingum.edu/) and in the office of the Educator Preparation Assessment Specialist.

  • Evaluation of the Management and Operations of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program

Program completers and the 29 superintendents noted above are also asked to evaluate the management and operations of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program. NCATE Standards 3 – 6 serve as the basis for these evaluations.   The questionnaires used to gather data regarding the management and operations of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program are available through the Educator Preparation Unit Accreditation web site on Blackboard (http://courses.muskingum.edu/) and in the office of the Educator Preparation Assessment Specialist.

The questionnaires used to gather data regarding the management and operations of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program are available through the Educator Preparation Unit Accreditation web site on Blackboard (http://courses.muskingum.edu/) and in the office of the Educator Preparation Assessment Specialist.           

  • Use of Data

Data collected regarding individual candidates are used to determine movement from one gateway to the next and to make decisions about the status of a candidate’s continuation in her/his respective program. Individual candidate data are also used to determine and provide individual candidate intervention. Furthermore, aggregated data are used to drive decisions about needed revisions to courses, assessments, and the management and operations of the Undergraduate Initial Teacher Preparation Program.

Note:  Expanded NCATE Definition of *Diversity/Diverse
"Differences among groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity; race; socioeconomic status; gender; exceptionalities; language, including ELL; religion; sexual orientation; and geographical area, including Appalachian".

Note: The term "All students" includes all individuals with respect to ethnicity; race; socioeconomic status; gender; exceptionalities; language, including English Language Learners; religion; sexual orientation; and geographic area, including Appalachian.